Sr3B2O6:Eu2+ yellow phosphor was prepared by the combustion method. The crystalline structure, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Sr3B2O6:Eu2+ were investigated extensively. The X-ray diffraction result indicates that the Sr3B2O6:Eu2+ phosphor exhibited a rhombohedral crystal structure. The emission spectra under a 435 nm excited wavelength showed an intense broad band peaking at 574 nm, which corresponds to the 4f65d1 → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ ion. There were two different sites of Sr replaced by Eu in host lattice. The concentration quenching process between Eu2+ ions is determined and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was verified as dipole-quadrupole interaction. The glow curve under 3 Gy β- ray irradiation had the glow peak at 160°C and the average activation energy was defined as about 0.98 eV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.